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Título : El sistema eléctrico de interconexión Perú-Ecuador y su incidencia en los costos totales de energía eléctrica en el Perú
Autor : Aragón Castro, Ismael Valerio
Eusebio Gonzales, Fredy R.
Palabras clave : Interconexiones eléctricas;Energía eléctrica;Costos
Fecha de publicación : 2013
Editorial : Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería. Programa Cybertesis PERÚ
Resumen : En la presente investigación se avalúa y analiza la relación causa-efecto de las variables: “El sistema eléctrico de interconexión Perú-Ecuador” y “los costos totales de energía eléctrica en el Perú”, durante el periodo 2012-2015. Se encuentra como resultado que los costos de la interconexión afectan negativamente los costos de la energía eléctrica en el Perú, puesto que el sistema tarifario traslada éstos a la tarifa mediante el cargo por peaje del Sistema Principal de Transmisión. Sin embargo, al haberse aprobado la Decisión CAN 757, que fija un nuevo modelo de intercambio comercial Perú-Ecuador, se determina que los ingresos por peajes de transmisión que afectan a las exportaciones reducirán el efecto negativo de los costos y, para los 3 años estudiados, resultan mayores que éstos, dando como resultado final que la interconexión incide positivamente reduciendo los costos totales de electricidad de los usuarios en el Perú, aunque en porcentajes poco significativos, menor al 1%, por cuanto la interconexión constituye una porción muy pequeña del mercado eléctrico del Perú. Aunque el enlace Zorritos-Machala fue concluido el 2004, sólo fue utilizado en pocas oportunidades para atender situaciones de emergencia o riesgo de restricción en uno u otro país y no se llegó a efectuar transacciones comerciales por cuanto la Decisión CAN 536 no se pudo adaptar a las regulaciones vigentes en Perú y Ecuador. Al haberse aprobado en la CAN la Decisión 757, que fija las reglas operativas y comerciales para las transacciones de electricidad entre Perú y Ecuador, se abre el camino para efectuar transacciones comerciales continuas. Sin embargo, no se conoce ni se ha estudiado cuál será su efecto sobre los costos totales de energía eléctrica de los usuarios en el Perú. Para tal efecto, primero se efectuó una evaluación de la situación del sistema de interconexión Perú-Ecuador, incluyendo los aspectos técnicos, comerciales y los registros de los intercambio efectuados en el periodo 2009-2012. Luego se evaluaron los costos de las instalaciones y su efecto en el costo de energía eléctrica para los usuarios, mediante el cargo por Peaje de Transmisión. Para determinar los volúmenes de importación/exportación, primero se calcularon los excedentes exportables de electricidad de cada sistema sobre la base de las proyecciones de oferta y demanda de cada país, bajo algunos escenarios representativos y luego, mediante un modelo de simulación de despacho mensual, se proyectaron para cada sistema los correspondientes precios de oferta de importación y los precios de oferta de exportación, con lo cual se determinó el sentido del flujo y se calcularon las cantidades de energía a ser transadas, encontrándose que el Perú será exportador neto y que las importaciones desde el Ecuador serían muy eventuales, puesto que sus costos de producción, valorizados a los precios internacionales de los combustibles fósiles, son muy elevados. Con esos resultados se determinaron los ingresos derivados de tales operaciones y los montos a ser asignados a la demanda nacional, constituidos básicamente por los ingresos por peajes de transmisión. Finalmente, siguiendo los procedimientos de fijación de precios regulados de electricidad se determinó la variación de los costos de energía eléctrica de los usuarios en el Perú. Como resultado de la investigación se concluye que si bien los costos del sistema de interconexión inciden negativamente en los costos totales de energía eléctrica de los usuarios en el Perú, los ingresos esperados por las exportaciones son mayores que los costos, por lo que el efecto neto de la interconexión es positiva, es decir se obtienen reducciones en los costos totales de electricidad de los usuarios del Perú, aunque en porcentajes poco significativos, menores al 0.1%, demostrando también que la interconexión no es significativa para el mercado eléctrico del Perú. Palabras Clave: Interconexiones eléctricas internacionales, costos de la interconexión, transacciones de importación/exportación de electricidad, enlaces internacionales, precios de oferta de exportación, precios de oferta de importación, costos marginales, tarifas de electricidad, peajes de transmisión. ABSTRACT This research evaluates and analyzes the cause-effect relationship of the variables: "The electrical system interconnection Peru - Ecuador" and "Total costs of electrical energy in Peru" in the period 2012-2015. It has been found that the interconnection installation costs affect adversely the costs of electrical energy in Peru, as the rating system transfers such payments to the electric rates by a toll on the main Transmission System. However, having adopted the CAN 757 decision it was established a new model for on the Peru-Ecuador trading, it is estimated that incomes from transmission toll paid by exports, will reduce the negative effect of costs and for 03 years studied, they will be higher that such cost by result the interconnection influences positively by reducing electrical energy costs users in Peru, although the percentages are not significant, since the interconnection is a very small portion on the Peruvian electricity market. Even although the Zorritos-Machala link 220kV TL was concluded since 2004, it was only used in a few opportunities to meet emergencies or risk restriction in either country and it did not reach to a business transaction because Decision CAN 536 could not adapt itself to the regulations in Peru and Ecuador. In the CAN - Decision 757 has been approved the operational and business rules for the electrical energy transactions between Peru and Ecuador, therefore the existing difficulties were overcome and the way to make continuous business transactions was open. However, it is not known nor has been studied what the effect of the costs and incomes of commercial transactions on the total cost of electrical energy on the users in Peru. For this purpose, first an assessment of the status of the system interconnection Peru-Ecuador was conducted, including the technical, commercial and exchange records made in 2009-2012. The facilities costs and their effect on the cost of electricity to users through the transmission toll pass fee was then evaluated. To assess the volumes of import/export, first exportable surplus electricity of each system on the basis of projections of supply and demand for each country under some modeled scenarios were determined and then by a simulation model of monthly electrical energy sales were projected for each system the prices of import supply and prices from export supply for each system, so that the flow direction was determined and the amounts of energy were calculated to be traded, finding that Peru would net exporter and imports from Ecuador would be very few because its production costs, accounted that international prices of fossil fuels are very high. With these results the income from such operations are determined and the amounts to be allocated to domestic demand, composed basically by incoming transmission toll. Finally, following the procedures for setting regulated prices it was calculated the varying costs of at SEIN electricity consumers. As a result of the investigation it is determined that although the costs of the interconnection system impact negatively on the overall cost of electricity consumers in Peru, expected income from exports are greater than costs, so the net effect on interconnection is positive, by reducing total costs of electricity consumers although not significant, 0.1% lower percentages are obtained, showing also that the interface is not significant for the electricity market in Peru. Keywords: International electric interconnections, interconnection costs, transactions of electricity import/export between systems, international links, export offer prices, import offer prices, marginal costs, electricity rates, transmission tolls.
This research evaluates and analyzes the cause-effect relationship of the variables: "The electrical system interconnection Peru - Ecuador" and "Total costs of electrical energy in Peru" in the period 2012-2015. It has been found that the interconnection installation costs affect adversely the costs of electrical energy in Peru, as the rating system transfers such payments to the electric rates by a toll on the main Transmission System. However, having adopted the CAN 757 decision it was established a new model for on the Peru-Ecuador trading, it is estimated that incomes from transmission toll paid by exports, will reduce the negative effect of costs and for 03 years studied, they will be higher that such cost by result the interconnection influences positively by reducing electrical energy costs users in Peru, although the percentages are not significant, since the interconnection is a very small portion on the Peruvian electricity market. Even although the Zorritos-Machala link 220kV TL was concluded since 2004, it was only used in a few opportunities to meet emergencies or risk restriction in either country and it did not reach to a business transaction because Decision CAN 536 could not adapt itself to the regulations in Peru and Ecuador. In the CAN - Decision 757 has been approved the operational and business rules for the electrical energy transactions between Peru and Ecuador, therefore the existing difficulties were overcome and the way to make continuous business transactions was open. However, it is not known nor has been studied what the effect of the costs and incomes of commercial transactions on the total cost of electrical energy on the users in Peru. For this purpose, first an assessment of the status of the system interconnection Peru-Ecuador was conducted, including the technical, commercial and exchange records made in 2009-2012. The facilities costs and their effect on the cost of electricity to users through the transmission toll pass fee was then evaluated. To assess the volumes of import/export, first exportable surplus electricity of each system on the basis of projections of supply and demand for each country under some modeled scenarios were determined and then by a simulation model of monthly electrical energy sales were projected for each system the prices of import supply and prices from export supply for each system, so that the flow direction was determined and the amounts of energy were calculated to be traded, finding that Peru would net exporter and imports from Ecuador would be very few because its production costs, accounted that international prices of fossil fuels are very high. With these results the income from such operations are determined and the amounts to be allocated to domestic demand, composed basically by incoming transmission toll. Finally, following the procedures for setting regulated prices it was calculated the varying costs of at SEIN electricity consumers. As a result of the investigation it is determined that although the costs of the interconnection system impact negatively on the overall cost of electricity consumers in Peru, expected income from exports are greater than costs, so the net effect on interconnection is positive, by reducing total costs of electricity consumers although not significant, 0.1% lower percentages are obtained, showing also that the interface is not significant for the electricity market in Peru. Keywords: International electric interconnections, interconnection costs, transactions of electricity import/export between systems, international links, export offer prices, import offer prices, marginal costs, electricity rates, transmission tolls.
URI : http://cybertesis.uni.edu.pe/handle/uni/2277
Derechos: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
Aparece en las colecciones: Maestría

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